Radix malorum est Cupiditas: Ad Thimotheum, sexto.
'Lordings,' quod he, 'in chirches whan I preche,
I peyne me to han an hauteyn speche, 330
And ringe it out as round as gooth a belle,
For I can al by rote that I telle.
My theme is alwey oon, and ever was—
"Radix malorum est Cupiditas."
First I pronounce whennes that I come, 335
And than my bulles shewe I, alle and somme.
Our lige lordes seel on my patente,
That shewe I first, my body to warente, (10)
That no man be so bold, ne preest ne clerk,
Me to destourbe of Cristes holy werk; 340
And after that than telle I forth my tales,
Bulles of popes and of cardinales,
Of patriarkes, and bishoppes I shewe;
And in Latyn I speke a wordes fewe,
To saffron with my predicacioun, 345
And for to stire men to devocioun.
Than shewe I forth my longe cristal stones,
Y-crammed ful of cloutes and of bones; (20)
Reliks been they, as wenen they echoon.
Than have I in latoun a sholder-boon 350
Which that was of an holy Iewes shepe.
"Good men," seye I, "tak of my wordes kepe;
If that this boon be wasshe in any welle,
If cow, or calf, or sheep, or oxe swelle
That any worm hath ete, or worm y-stonge, 355
Tak water of that welle, and wash his tonge,
And it is hool anon; and forthermore,
Of pokkes and of scabbe, and every sore (30)
Shal every sheep be hool, that of this welle
Drinketh a draughte; tak kepe eek what I telle. 360
If that the good-man, that the bestes oweth,
Wol every wike, er that the cok him croweth,
Fastinge, drinken of this welle a draughte,
As thilke holy Iewe our eldres taughte,
His bestes and his stoor shal multiplye. 365
And, sirs, also it heleth Ialousye;
For, though a man be falle in Ialous rage,
Let maken with this water his potage, (40)
And never shal he more his wyf mistriste,
Though he the sooth of hir defaute wiste; 370
Al had she taken preestes two or three.
Heer is a miteyn eek, that ye may see.
He that his hond wol putte in this miteyn,
He shal have multiplying of his greyn,
Whan he hath sowen, be it whete or otes, 375
So that he offre pens, or elles grotes.
Good men and wommen, o thing warne I yow,
If any wight be in this chirche now, (50)
That hath doon sinne horrible, that he
Dar nat, for shame, of it y-shriven be, 380
Or any womman, be she yong or old,
That hath y-maad hir housbond cokewold,
Swich folk shul have no power ne no grace
To offren to my reliks in this place.
And who-so findeth him out of swich blame, 385
He wol com up and offre in goddes name,
And I assoille him by the auctoritee
Which that by bulle y-graunted was to me." (60)
By this gaude have I wonne, yeer by yeer,
An hundred mark sith I was Pardoner. 390
I stonde lyk a clerk in my pulpet,
And whan the lewed peple is doun y-set,
I preche, so as ye han herd bifore,
And telle an hundred false Iapes more.
Than peyne I me to strecche forth the nekke, 395
And est and west upon the peple I bekke,
As doth a dowve sitting on a berne.
Myn hondes and my tonge goon so yerne, (70)
That it is Ioye to see my bisinesse.
Of avaryce and of swich cursednesse 400
Is al my preching, for to make hem free
To yeve her pens, and namely un-to me.
For my entente is nat but for to winne,
And no-thing for correccioun of sinne.
I rekke never, whan that they ben beried, 405
Though that her soules goon a-blakeberied!
For certes, many a predicacioun
Comth ofte tyme of yvel entencioun; (80)
Som for plesaunce of folk and flaterye,
To been avaunced by ipocrisye, 410
And som for veyne glorie, and som for hate.
For, whan I dar non other weyes debate,
Than wol I stinge him with my tonge smerte
In preching, so that he shal nat asterte
To been defamed falsly, if that he 415
Hath trespased to my brethren or to me.
For, though I telle noght his propre name,
Men shal wel knowe that it is the same (90)
By signes and by othere circumstances.
Thus quyte I folk that doon us displesances; 420
Thus spitte I out my venim under hewe
Of holynesse, to seme holy and trewe.
But shortly myn entente I wol devyse;
I preche of no-thing but for coveityse.
Therfor my theme is yet, and ever was— 425
"Radix malorum est cupiditas."
Thus can I preche agayn that same vyce
Which that I use, and that is avaryce. (100)
But, though my-self be gilty in that sinne,
Yet can I maken other folk to twinne 430
From avaryce, and sore to repente.
But that is nat my principal entente.
I preche no-thing but for coveityse;
Of this matere it oughte y-nogh suffyse.
Than telle I hem ensamples many oon 435
Of olde stories, longe tyme agoon:
For lewed peple loven tales olde;
Swich thinges can they wel reporte and holde. (110)
What? trowe ye, the whyles I may preche,
And winne gold and silver for I teche, 440
That I wol live in povert wilfully?
Nay, nay, I thoghte it never trewely!
For I wol preche and begge in sondry londes;
I wol not do no labour with myn hondes,
Ne make baskettes, and live therby, 445
Because I wol nat beggen ydelly.
I wol non of the apostles counterfete;
I wol have money, wolle, chese, and whete, (120)
Al were it yeven of the povrest page,
Or of the povrest widwe in a village, 450
Al sholde hir children sterve for famyne.
Nay! I wol drinke licour of the vyne,
And have a Ioly wenche in every toun.
But herkneth, lordings, in conclusioun;
Your lyking is that I shal telle a tale. 455
Now, have I dronke a draughte of corny ale,
By god, I hope I shal yow telle a thing
That shal, by resoun, been at your lyking. (130)
For, though myself be a ful vicious man,
A moral tale yet I yow telle can, 460
Which I am wont to preche, for to winne.
Now holde your pees, my tale I wol beginne.
Here biginneth the Pardoners Tale.
In Flaundres whylom was a companye
Of yonge folk, that haunteden folye,
As ryot, hasard, stewes, and tavernes, 465
Wher-as, with harpes, lutes, and giternes,
They daunce and pleye at dees bothe day and night,
And ete also and drinken over hir might, (140)
Thurgh which they doon the devel sacrifyse
With-in that develes temple, in cursed wyse, 470
By superfluitee abhominable;
Hir othes been so grete and so dampnable,
That it is grisly for to here hem swere;
Our blissed lordes body they to-tere;
Hem thoughte Iewes rente him noght y-nough; 475
And ech of hem at otheres sinne lough.
And right anon than comen tombesteres
Fetys and smale, and yonge fruytesteres, (150)
Singers with harpes, baudes, wafereres,
Whiche been the verray develes officeres 480
To kindle and blowe the fyr of lecherye,
That is annexed un-to glotonye;
The holy writ take I to my witnesse,
That luxurie is in wyn and dronkenesse.
Lo, how that dronken Loth, unkindely, 485
Lay by his doghtres two, unwitingly;
So dronke he was, he niste what he wroghte.
Herodes, (who-so wel the stories soghte), (160)
Whan he of wyn was replet at his feste,
Right at his owene table he yaf his heste 490
To sleen the Baptist Iohn ful giltelees.
Senek seith eek a good word doutelees;
He seith, he can no difference finde
Bitwix a man that is out of his minde
And a man which that is dronkelewe, 495
But that woodnesse, y-fallen in a shrewe,
Persevereth lenger than doth dronkenesse.
O glotonye, ful of cursednesse, (170)
O cause first of our confusioun,
O original of our dampnacioun, 500
Til Crist had boght us with his blood agayn!
Lo, how dere, shortly for to sayn,
Aboght was thilke cursed vileinye;
Corrupt was al this world for glotonye!
Adam our fader, and his wyf also, 505
Fro Paradys to labour and to wo
Were driven for that vyce, it is no drede;
For whyl that Adam fasted, as I rede, (180)
He was in Paradys; and whan that he
Eet of the fruyt defended on the tree, 510
Anon he was out-cast to wo and peyne.
O glotonye, on thee wel oghte us pleyne!
O, wiste a man how many maladyes
Folwen of excesse and of glotonyes,
He wolde been the more mesurable 515
Of his diete, sittinge at his table.
Allas! the shorte throte, the tendre mouth,
Maketh that, Est and West, and North and South, (190)
In erthe, in eir, in water men to-swinke
To gete a glotoun deyntee mete and drinke! 520
Of this matere, o Paul, wel canstow trete,
'Mete un-to wombe, and wombe eek un-to mete,
Shal god destroyen bothe,' as Paulus seith.
Allas! a foul thing is it, by my feith,
To seye this word, and fouler is the dede, 525
Whan man so drinketh of the whyte and rede,
That of his throte he maketh his privee,
Thurgh thilke cursed superfluitee. (200)
The apostel weping seith ful pitously,
'Ther walken many of whiche yow told have I, 530
I seye it now weping with pitous voys,
That they been enemys of Cristes croys,
Of whiche the ende is deeth, wombe is her god.'
O wombe! O bely! O stinking cod,
Fulfild of donge and of corrupcioun! 535
At either ende of thee foul is the soun.
How greet labour and cost is thee to finde!
Thise cokes, how they stampe, and streyne, and grinde, (210)
And turnen substaunce in-to accident,
To fulfille al thy likerous talent! 540
Out of the harde bones knokke they
The mary, for they caste noght a-wey
That may go thurgh the golet softe and swote;
Of spicerye, of leef, and bark, and rote
Shal been his sauce y-maked by delyt, 545
To make him yet a newer appetyt.
But certes, he that haunteth swich delyces
Is deed, whyl that he liveth in tho vyces. (220)
A lecherous thing is wyn, and dronkenesse
Is ful of stryving and of wrecchednesse. 550
O dronke man, disfigured is thy face,
Sour is thy breeth, foul artow to embrace,
And thurgh thy dronke nose semeth the soun
As though thou seydest ay 'Sampsoun, Sampsoun';
And yet, god wot, Sampsoun drank never no wyn. 555
Thou fallest, as it were a stiked swyn;
Thy tonge is lost, and al thyn honest cure;
For dronkenesse is verray sepulture (230)
Of mannes wit and his discrecioun.
In whom that drinke hath dominacioun, 560
He can no conseil kepe, it is no drede.
Now kepe yow fro the whyte and fro the rede,
And namely fro the whyte wyn of Lepe,
That is to selle in Fish-strete or in Chepe.
This wyn of Spayne crepeth subtilly 565
In othere wynes, growing faste by,
Of which ther ryseth swich fumositee,
That whan a man hath dronken draughtes three, (240)
And weneth that he be at hoom in Chepe,
He is in Spayne, right at the toune of Lepe, 570
Nat at the Rochel, ne at Burdeux toun;
And thanne wol he seye, 'Sampsoun, Sampsoun.'
But herkneth, lordings, o word, I yow preye,
That alle the sovereyn actes, dar I seye,
Of victories in the olde testament, 575
Thurgh verray god, that is omnipotent,
Were doon in abstinence and in preyere;
Loketh the Bible, and ther ye may it lere. (250)
Loke, Attila, the grete conquerour,
Deyde in his sleep, with shame and dishonour, 580
Bledinge ay at his nose in dronkenesse;
A capitayn shoulde live in sobrenesse.
And over al this, avyseth yow right wel
What was comaunded un-to Lamuel—
Nat Samuel, but Lamuel, seye I—- 585
Redeth the Bible, and finde it expresly
Of wyn-yeving to hem that han Iustyse.
Na-more of this, for it may wel suffyse. (260)
And now that I have spoke of glotonye,
Now wol I yow defenden hasardrye. 590
Hasard is verray moder of lesinges,
And of deceite, and cursed forsweringes,
Blaspheme of Crist, manslaughtre, and wast also
Of catel and of tyme; and forthermo,
It is repreve and contrarie of honour 595
For to ben holde a commune hasardour.
And ever the hyër he is of estaat,
The more is he holden desolaat. (270)
If that a prince useth hasardrye,
In alle governaunce and policye 600
He is, as by commune opinioun,
Y-holde the lasse in reputacioun.
Stilbon, that was a wys embassadour,
Was sent to Corinthe, in ful greet honour,
Fro Lacidomie, to make hir alliaunce. 605
And whan he cam, him happede, par chaunce,
That alle the grettest that were of that lond,
Pleyinge atte hasard he hem fond. (280)
For which, as sone as it mighte be,
He stal him hoom agayn to his contree, 610
And seyde, 'ther wol I nat lese my name;
Ne I wol nat take on me so greet defame,
Yow for to allye un-to none hasardours.
Sendeth othere wyse embassadours;
For, by my trouthe, me were lever dye, 615
Than I yow sholde to hasardours allye.
For ye that been so glorious in honours
Shul nat allyen yow with hasardours (290)
As by my wil, ne as by my tretee.'
This wyse philosophre thus seyde he. 620
Loke eek that, to the king Demetrius
The king of Parthes, as the book seith us,
Sente him a paire of dees of gold in scorn,
For he hadde used hasard ther-biforn;
For which he heeld his glorie or his renoun 625
At no value or reputacioun.
Lordes may finden other maner pley
Honeste y-nough to dryve the day awey. (300)
Now wol I speke of othes false and grete
A word or two, as olde bokes trete. 630
Gret swering is a thing abhominable,
And false swering is yet more reprevable.
The heighe god forbad swering at al,
Witnesse on Mathew; but in special
Of swering seith the holy Ieremye, 635
'Thou shalt seye sooth thyn othes, and nat lye,
And swere in dome, and eek in rightwisnesse;'
But ydel swering is a cursednesse. (310)
Bihold and see, that in the firste table
Of heighe goddes hestes honurable, 640
How that the seconde heste of him is this—
'Tak nat my name in ydel or amis.'
Lo, rather he forbedeth swich swering
Than homicyde or many a cursed thing;
I seye that, as by ordre, thus it stondeth; 645
This knowen, that his hestes understondeth,
How that the second heste of god is that.
And forther over, I wol thee telle al plat, (320)
That vengeance shal nat parten from his hous,
That of his othes is to outrageous. 650
'By goddes precious herte, and by his nayles,
And by the blode of Crist, that it is in Hayles,
Seven is my chaunce, and thyn is cink and treye;
By goddes armes, if thou falsly pleye,
This dagger shal thurgh-out thyn herte go'— 655
This fruyt cometh of the bicched bones two,
Forswering, ire, falsnesse, homicyde.
Now, for the love of Crist that for us dyde, (330)
Leveth your othes, bothe grete and smale;
But, sirs, now wol I telle forth my tale. 660
Thise ryotoures three, of whiche I telle,
Longe erst er pryme rong of any belle,
Were set hem in a taverne for to drinke;
And as they satte, they herde a belle clinke
Biforn a cors, was caried to his grave; 665
That oon of hem gan callen to his knave,
'Go bet,' quod he, 'and axe redily,
What cors is this that passeth heer forby; (340)
And look that thou reporte his name wel.'
'Sir,' quod this boy, 'it nedeth never-a-del. 670
It was me told, er ye cam heer, two houres;
He was, pardee, an old felawe of youres;
And sodeynly he was y-slayn to-night,
For-dronke, as he sat on his bench upright;
Ther cam a privee theef, men clepeth Deeth, 675
That in this contree al the peple sleeth,
And with his spere he smoot his herte a-two,
And wente his wey with-outen wordes mo. (350)
He hath a thousand slayn this pestilence:
And, maister, er ye come in his presence, 680
Me thinketh that it were necessarie
For to be war of swich an adversarie:
Beth redy for to mete him evermore.
Thus taughte me my dame, I sey na-more.'
'By seinte Marie,' seyde this taverner, 685
'The child seith sooth, for he hath slayn this yeer,
Henne over a myle, with-in a greet village,
Both man and womman, child and hyne, and page. (360)
I trowe his habitacioun be there;
To been avysed greet wisdom it were, 690
Er that he dide a man a dishonour.'
'Ye, goddes armes,' quod this ryotour,
'Is it swich peril with him for to mete?
I shal him seke by wey and eek by strete,
I make avow to goddes digne bones! 695
Herkneth, felawes, we three been al ones;
Lat ech of us holde up his hond til other, (370)
And ech of us bicomen otheres brother,
And we wol sleen this false traytour Deeth;
He shal be slayn, which that so many sleeth, 700
By goddes dignitee, er it be night.'
Togidres han thise three her trouthes plight,
To live and dyen ech of hem for other,
As though he were his owene y-boren brother.
And up they sterte al dronken, in this rage, 705
And forth they goon towardes that village,
Of which the taverner had spoke biforn,
And many a grisly ooth than han they sworn, (380)
And Cristes blessed body they to-rente—
'Deeth shal be deed, if that they may him hente.' 710
Whan they han goon nat fully half a myle,
Right as they wolde han troden over a style,
An old man and a povre with hem mette.
This olde man ful mekely hem grette,
And seyde thus, 'now, lordes, god yow see!' 715
The proudest of thise ryotoures three
Answerde agayn, 'what? carl, with sory grace,
Why artow al forwrapped save thy face? (390)
Why livestow so longe in so greet age?'
This olde man gan loke in his visage, 720
And seyde thus, 'for I ne can nat finde
A man, though that I walked in-to Inde,
Neither in citee nor in no village,
That wolde chaunge his youthe for myn age;
And therfore moot I han myn age stille, 725
As longe time as it is goddes wille.
Ne deeth, allas! ne wol nat han my lyf;
Thus walke I, lyk a restelees caityf, (400)
And on the ground, which is my modres gate,
I knokke with my staf, bothe erly and late, 730
And seye, "leve moder, leet me in!
Lo, how I vanish, flesh, and blood, and skin!
Allas! whan shul my bones been at reste?
Moder, with yow wolde I chaunge my cheste,
That in my chambre longe tyme hath be, 735
Ye! for an heyre clout to wrappe me!"
But yet to me she wol nat do that grace,
For which ful pale and welked is my face. (410)
But, sirs, to yow it is no curteisye
To speken to an old man vileinye, 740
But he trespasse in worde, or elles in dede.
In holy writ ye may your-self wel rede,
"Agayns an old man, hoor upon his heed,
Ye sholde aryse;" wherfor I yeve yow reed,
Ne dooth un-to an old man noon harm now, 745
Na-more than ye wolde men dide to yow
In age, if that ye so longe abyde;
And god be with yow, wher ye go or ryde. (420)
I moot go thider as I have to go.'
'Nay, olde cherl, by god, thou shall nat so,' 750
Seyde this other hasardour anon;
'Thou partest nat so lightly, by seint Iohn!
Thou spak right now of thilke traitour Deeth,
That in this contree alle our frendes sleeth.
Have heer my trouthe, as thou art his aspye, 755
Tel wher he is, or thou shalt it abye,
By god, and by the holy sacrament!
For soothly thou art oon of his assent, (430)
To sleen us yonge folk, thou false theef!'
'Now, sirs,' quod he, 'if that yow be so leef 760
To finde Deeth, turne up this croked wey,
For in that grove I lafte him, by my fey,
Under a tree, and ther he wol abyde;
Nat for your boost he wol him no-thing hyde.
See ye that ook? right ther ye shul him finde. 765
God save yow, that boghte agayn mankinde,
And yow amende!'—thus seyde this olde man.
And everich of thise ryotoures ran, (440)
Til he cam to that tree, and ther they founde
Of florins fyne of golde y-coyned rounde 770
Wel ny an eighte busshels, as hem thoughte.
No lenger thanne after Deeth they soughte,
But ech of hem so glad was of that sighte,
For that the florins been so faire and brighte,
That doun they sette hem by this precious hord. 775
The worste of hem he spake the firste word.
'Brethren,' quod he, 'tak kepe what I seye;
My wit is greet, though that I bourde and pleye. (450)
This tresor hath fortune un-to us yiven,
In mirthe and Iolitee our lyf to liven, 780
And lightly as it comth, so wol we spende.
Ey! goddes precious dignitee! who wende
To-day, that we sholde han so fair a grace?
But mighte this gold be caried fro this place
Hoom to myn hous, or elles un-to youres— 785
For wel ye woot that al this gold is oures—
Than were we in heigh felicitee.
But trewely, by daye it may nat be; (460)
Men wolde seyn that we were theves stronge,
And for our owene tresor doon us honge. 790
This tresor moste y-caried be by nighte
As wysly and as slyly as it mighte.
Wherfore I rede that cut among us alle
Be drawe, and lat se wher the cut wol falle;
And he that hath the cut with herte blythe 795
Shal renne to the toune, and that ful swythe,
And bringe us breed and wyn ful prively.
And two of us shul kepen subtilly (470)
This tresor wel; and, if he wol nat tarie,
Whan it is night, we wol this tresor carie 800
By oon assent, wher-as us thinketh best.'
That oon of hem the cut broughte in his fest,
And bad hem drawe, and loke wher it wol falle;
And it fil on the yongeste of hem alle;
And forth toward the toun he wente anon. 805
And al-so sone as that he was gon,
That oon of hem spak thus un-to that other,
'Thou knowest wel thou art my sworne brother, (480)
Thy profit wol I telle thee anon.
Thou woost wel that our felawe is agon; 810
And heer is gold, and that ful greet plentee,
That shal departed been among us three.
But natheles, if I can shape it so
That it departed were among us two,
Hadde I nat doon a freendes torn to thee?' 815
That other answerde, 'I noot how that may be;
He woot how that the gold is with us tweye,
What shal we doon, what shal we to him seye?' (490)
'Shal it be conseil?' seyde the firste shrewe,
'And I shal tellen thee, in wordes fewe, 820
What we shal doon, and bringe it wel aboute.'
'I graunte,' quod that other, 'out of doute,
That, by my trouthe, I wol thee nat biwreye.'
'Now,' quod the firste, 'thou woost wel we be tweye,
And two of us shul strenger be than oon. 825
Look whan that he is set, and right anoon
Arys, as though thou woldest with him pleye;
And I shal ryve him thurgh the sydes tweye (500)
Whyl that thou strogelest with him as in game,
And with thy dagger look thou do the same; 830
And than shal al this gold departed be,
My dere freend, bitwixen me and thee;
Than may we bothe our lustes al fulfille,
And pleye at dees right at our owene wille.'
And thus acorded been thise shrewes tweye 835
To sleen the thridde, as ye han herd me seye.
This yongest, which that wente un-to the toun,
Ful ofte in herte he rolleth up and doun (510)
The beautee of thise florins newe and brighte.
'O lord!' quod he, 'if so were that I mighte 840
Have al this tresor to my-self allone,
Ther is no man that liveth under the trone
Of god, that sholde live so mery as I!'
And atte laste the feend, our enemy,
Putte in his thought that he shold poyson beye, 845
With which he mighte sleen his felawes tweye;
For-why the feend fond him in swich lyvinge,
That he had leve him to sorwe bringe, (520)
For this was outrely his fulle entente
To sleen hem bothe, and never to repente. 850
And forth he gooth, no lenger wolde he tarie,
Into the toun, un-to a pothecarie,
And preyed him, that he him wolde selle
Som poyson, that he mighte his rattes quelle;
And eek ther was a polcat in his hawe, 855
That, as he seyde, his capouns hadde y-slawe,
And fayn he wolde wreke him, if he mighte,
On vermin, that destroyed him by nighte. (530)
The pothecarie answerde, 'and thou shalt have
A thing that, al-so god my soule save, 860
In al this world ther nis no creature,
That ete or dronke hath of this confiture
Noght but the mountance of a corn of whete,
That he ne shal his lyf anon forlete;
Ye, sterve he shal, and that in lasse whyle 865
Than thou wolt goon a paas nat but a myle;
This poyson is so strong and violent.'
This cursed man hath in his hond y-hent (540)
This poyson in a box, and sith he ran
In-to the nexte strete, un-to a man, 870
And borwed [of] him large botels three;
And in the two his poyson poured he;
The thridde he kepte clene for his drinke.
For al the night he shoop him for to swinke
In caryinge of the gold out of that place. 875
And whan this ryotour, with sory grace,
Had filled with wyn his grete botels three,
To his felawes agayn repaireth he. (550)
What nedeth it to sermone of it more?
For right as they had cast his deeth bifore, 880
Right so they han him slayn, and that anon.
And whan that this was doon, thus spak that oon,
'Now lat us sitte and drinke, and make us merie,
And afterward we wol his body berie.'
And with that word it happed him, par cas, 885
To take the botel ther the poyson was,
And drank, and yaf his felawe drinke also,
For which anon they storven bothe two. (560)
But, certes, I suppose that Avicen
Wroot never in no canon, ne in no fen, 890
Mo wonder signes of empoisoning
Than hadde thise wrecches two, er hir ending.
Thus ended been thise homicydes two,
And eek the false empoysoner also.
O cursed sinne, ful of cursednesse! 895
O traytours homicyde, o wikkednesse!
O glotonye, luxurie, and hasardrye!
Thou blasphemour of Crist with vileinye (570)
And othes grete, of usage and of pryde!
Allas! mankinde, how may it bityde, 900
That to thy creatour which that thee wroghte,
And with his precious herte-blood thee boghte,
Thou art so fals and so unkinde, allas!
Now, goode men, god forgeve yow your trespas,
And ware yow fro the sinne of avaryce. 905
Myn holy pardoun may yow alle waryce,
So that ye offre nobles or sterlinges,
Or elles silver broches, spones, ringes. (580)
Boweth your heed under this holy bulle!
Cometh up, ye wyves, offreth of your wolle! 910
Your name I entre heer in my rolle anon;
In-to the blisse of hevene shul ye gon;
I yow assoile, by myn heigh power,
Yow that wol offre, as clene and eek as cleer
As ye were born; and, lo, sirs, thus I preche. 915
And Iesu Crist, that is our soules leche,
So graunte yow his pardon to receyve;
For that is best; I wol yow nat deceyve. (590)
But sirs, o word forgat I in my tale,
I have relikes and pardon in my male, 920
As faire as any man in Engelond,
Whiche were me yeven by the popes hond.
If any of yow wol, of devocioun,
Offren, and han myn absolucioun,
Cometh forth anon, and kneleth heer adoun, 925
And mekely receyveth my pardoun:
Or elles, taketh pardon as ye wende,
Al newe and fresh, at every tounes ende, (600)
So that ye offren alwey newe and newe
Nobles and pens, which that be gode and trewe. 930
It is an honour to everich that is heer,
That ye mowe have a suffisant pardoneer
Tassoille yow, in contree as ye ryde,
For aventures which that may bityde.
Peraventure ther may falle oon or two 935
Doun of his hors, and breke his nekke atwo.
Look which a seuretee is it to yow alle
That I am in your felaweship y-falle, (610)
That may assoille yow, bothe more and lasse,
Whan that the soule shal fro the body passe, 940
I rede that our hoste heer shal biginne,
For he is most envoluped in sinne.
Com forth, sir hoste, and offre first anon,
And thou shalt kisse the reliks everichon,
Ye, for a grote! unbokel anon thy purs.' 945
'Nay, nay,' quod he, 'than have I Cristes curs!
Lat be,' quod he, 'it shal nat be, so theech!
Thou woldest make me kisse thyn old breech, (620)
And swere it were a relik of a seint,
Thogh it were with thy fundement depeint! 950
But by the croys which that seint Eleyne fond,
I wolde I hadde thy coillons in myn hond
In stede of relikes or of seintuarie;
Lat cutte hem of, I wol thee helpe hem carie;
They shul be shryned in an hogges tord.' 955
This pardoner answerde nat a word;
So wrooth he was, no word ne wolde he seye.
'Now,' quod our host, 'I wol no lenger pleye (630)
With thee, ne with noon other angry man.'
But right anon the worthy knight bigan, 960
Whan that he saugh that al the peple lough,
'Na-more of this, for it is right y-nough;
Sir pardoner, be glad and mery of chere;
And ye, sir host, that been to me so dere,
I prey yow that ye kisse the pardoner. 965
And pardoner, I prey thee, drawe thee neer,
And, as we diden, lat us laughe and pleye.' (639)
Anon they kiste, and riden forth hir weye. [T. 12902.
Here is ended the Pardoners Tale.
Introduction to the Tale
Introduction to The Pardoner's Prologue and Tale
The Pardoner’s Prologue is written in a form of literary confession in which the Pardoner describes his misdeeds with much pride and self-satisfaction. He uses different tactics to get money from his hearers, but he could not care less what happens to their soul. He does this for a few reasons which are mentioned in lines 408-413 and 420-422, among them hatred.
The Pardoner’s Tale is without a doubt a sermon combined with an exemplum because he preaches throughout the story, but he uses the story of the three rioters as an example to prove or illustrate a point which is, "greed is the root of all evil". The story told by the Pardoner, like many other tales in medieval literature, is not original. It is pivotal to keep in mind that the sense of originality in literature that is valued now, was irrelevant to Chaucer and his readers. Nevertheless, Chaucer’s treatment, i.e., how he presents and discusses the subject, is original. The old man, for example, is an impressive character that adds mystery and quality to the story, which to this day, remain a debate whether he embodies good or evil. The presentation of the tale itself which is surrounded by preaching in order to show the influence it can have on listeners—at least the Pardoner believes that the preaching he is doing has influence on the listeners—is also entirely Chaucer’s.
Furthermore, it is not a coincidence that gluttony, gambling and false oaths are treated as major sins in this tale. These sins were known as “tavern sins” which were a popular topic in medieval sermons. Therefore, Chaucer could not have placed the scene of the tale any better than at a tavern which is a place of gluttony and gambling. Then, there are the three rioters who take all sort of oaths that they are unable to keep in the end. One thing that is made clear in the tale is that the sin of gluttony and gambling unavoidably leads to false swearing.
While the Pardoner was thought by the Host and the pilgrims—judging by their reaction in the prologue—to not be able to tell a moral tale, it could be argued that the Pardoner told one of the most comprehensible moral tales in the Canterbury Tales.
Background to the Pardoner's Prologue and Tale
The job of a pardoner
A pardoner was a church official who collected money from people by giving them pardons on behalf of the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. In today's world the job does not exist anymore. It was expected from people who wanted to absolve their sins to comply with three requirements: firstly, regret their sins (repent), secondly, tell their sins to a priest, and thirdly, be disposed (willing) to do what the priest orders as a sign of regretting their sins. The priest acts on behalf of God; if any of the three requirements are not fulfilled after the absolution (forgiveness) was given, then it is no longer valid, and the sins are thus not forgiven. It goes without saying that for Christians it is imperative that their souls are free of sins otherwise the afterlife might not be so bright for them. In the afterlife there are three options; one could go to heaven, to Hell or to purgatory. In order to go to heaven, one had and still has to be saintlike—even to this day. One goes to purgatory when the soul is not completely cleansed. There, the souls will have to endure suffering and go through a process of purification until they are ready for heaven or until judgment day comes. People who go to Hell are the ones who were never baptized or who committed mortal sins after they were baptized. What is a mortal sin? The Church simply makes a distinction between mortal and venial sins. The former deprives the souls from divine grace while the latter does not. Which sins are considered mortal and which not, remains unclear. There are ways, however, that venial sinners can be forgiven or at least have their time shorten in purgatory. One of those options is to simply suffer in purgatory. Other options include church masses requested by relatives for the departed, confessing sins to a priest, or have the Pope grant an indulgence. The last three indulgences, as it is officially called, supposedly will shorten the time and suffering in the purgatory. In the late Middle Ages, the sale of indulgences was a widespread abuse at the hands of pardoners. As penance (a duty required of a person by a priest to show regret) in the Middle Ages were strict and harsh, the approach of paying money for indulgences was established and grew popular and made pardoners and others who abused of it, very rich.
Preaching in the Middle Ages
Delivering a sermon was a practice that required strict structure and priests had to undergo training before they could preach. A sermon knew 6 steps:
1. Announce the theme which is a text from the Bible, e.g. Radix malorum est cupiditas—greed is the root of all evil—in the Pardoner's Tale.
2. A brief introduction to the theme.
3. an exemplum (a story to illustrate a point) so that people could relate to it.
4. An analysis and discussion of the biblical text.
5. Linking the discussion of the text to parishioners’ lives (how they can apply it).
6. Conclude the sermon and offer a final blessing to parishioners before they leave.
Many techniques were deployed during a sermon to keep the people’s attention and to ensure that they retain the information that was communicated. Most of them could not read nor write so repetition was important for the retention of the information received. The delivery of the information had to be creative and attractive to keep the people’s attention at all times during the sermon. Bear in mind that priests functioned as a channel or medium through which God himself spoke during a sermon. Therefore, the sermons delivered by the priest are not affected by his own personal thoughts; or so the Christians believed.
The influence of the Church
The church exercised unimaginable power and influence in the fourteenth century. For instance, mostly all educational institutions and hospitals were run by monasteries. Furthermore, people were expected to attend church masses, give offerings, and confess their sins to the Church. The Church also employed people as a result of the vast estate they amassed and needed people to work for them. Not only did the Church have power over spiritual matters, but it also had power and influence over political matters such as income and housing. Most notable is the position of the chancellor; the chancellor was the person responsible for the financial affairs in the country. This position was often held by churchmen far into the fourteenth century. As far as law goes, the clergy were exempted to be taken to court as they had their own court of law that protected them. (Could this old-established tradition perhaps explain the sudden gargantuan exposure of disturbing priests' behavior in the twenty-first century?)
Loss of influence and power
After a long-established tradition of church power and influence, the Church saw significant loss of it in the fourteenth century. For example, many people took interest in reading and writing and started going to school. Consequently, the Church started to lose control over educational institutions as common people started to establish their own schools for poor people. The Church, therefore, lost control of what happens in those schools. Take the curriculum of a school, for example. It could be designed by the Church in one way or the other to further their influence. Another turning point was the fact that people, mostly nobles (people belonging to high social class or political status), started their own businesses to make their estate as wealthy as the Church’s became from their estate. They were basically copying the Church's techniques of earning money. It was a time of growth and prosperity for the people. Also, the plague at that time was fading away and people no longer had reasons to fear death. Subsequently, people grew more comfortable with the death thread of the plague vanishing and started questioning the Church’s antics. Furthermore, John Wycliff was one of the first scholars at the Oxford University to question the Church in the fourteenth century. He questioned the fact that the Church had a vast estate (while the Bible denounces material wealth) and the fact that they controlled educational institutions. Wycliff believed that it was inappropriate for the Church to have properties and control institutions such as schools and hospitals. He even translated the Vulgate Bible into Middle English in 1382 to practice his belief straight from the Bible. His followers were known as Lollards.